Enable SSL-encryption for MariaDB Galera Cluster

Tuesday, October 17, 2017

Imagine you have MariaDB Galera cluster with nodes running in different data centers. Data centers are not connected via secured VPN tunnel.
As database security is very important you must ensure that traffic between nodes is fully secured.

Galera Cluster supports encrypted connections between nodes using SSL protocol and in this post I want to show how to encrypt all cluster communication using SSL encryption.


Check current SSL configuration.

MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'have_ssl';
+---------------+----------+
| Variable_name | Value    |
+---------------+----------+
| have_ssl      | DISABLED |  ###==> SSL Disabled
+---------------+----------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> status
--------------
mysql  Ver 15.1 Distrib 10.0.29-MariaDB, for debian-linux-gnu (x86_64) using readline 5.2

Connection id:          56
Current database:
Current user:           marko@localhost
SSL:                    Not in use   ###==> SSL is not used
Current pager:          stdout
Using outfile:          ''
Using delimiter:        ;
Server:                 MariaDB
Server version:         10.0.17-MariaDB-1~trusty-wsrep-log mariadb.org binary distribution, wsrep_25.10.r4144
Protocol version:       10
Connection:             Localhost via UNIX socket
Server characterset:    utf8
Db     characterset:    utf8
Client characterset:    utf8
Conn.  characterset:    utf8
UNIX socket:            /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
Uptime:                 7 days 42 min 29 sec

Threads: 52  Questions: 10  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 0  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 63  Queries per second avg: 0.000
--------------
SSL is currently disabled.

To fully secure all cluster communication we must SSL-encrypt replication traffic within Galera Cluster, State Snapshot Transfer and traffic between database server and client.

We will create SSL Certificates and Keys using openssl.

# Create new folder for certificates
mkdir -p /etc/mysql/ssl
cd /etc/mysql/ssl

# Create CA certificate
# Generate CA key
openssl genrsa 2048 > ca-key.pem

# Using the CA key, generate the CA certificate
openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -days 3600 \
> -key ca-key.pem -out ca-cert.pem
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:HR
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Zagreb
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Zagreb
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Dummycorp
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:IT
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:myu1.localdomain
Email Address []:marko@dummycorp.com


# Create server certificate, remove passphrase, and sign it
# Create the server key
openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -days 3600 \
>         -nodes -keyout server-key.pem -out server-req.pem
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:HR
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Zagreb
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Zagreb
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Dummycorp
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:IT
##==> Use the ".localdomain" only on the first certificate.
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:myu1
Email Address []:marko@dummycorp.com

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:secretpassword
An optional company name []:

# Process the server RSA key
openssl rsa -in server-key.pem -out server-key.pem

# Sign the server certificate
openssl x509 -req -in server-req.pem -days 3600 \
>         -CA ca-cert.pem -CAkey ca-key.pem -set_serial 01 -out server-cert.pem


# Create client certificate, remove passphrase, and sign it
# Create the client key
openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -days 3600 \
>         -nodes -keyout client-key.pem -out client-req.pem
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:HR
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Zagreb
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Zagreb
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Dummycorp
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:IT
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:myu1
Email Address []:marko@dummycorp.com

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:secretpassword
An optional company name []:

# Process client RSA key
openssl rsa -in client-key.pem -out client-key.pem

# Sign the client certificate
openssl x509 -req -in client-req.pem -days 3600 \
>         -CA ca-cert.pem -CAkey ca-key.pem -set_serial 01 -out client-cert.pem


# Verify certificates

openssl verify -CAfile ca-cert.pem server-cert.pem client-cert.pem

server-cert.pem: OK
client-cert.pem: OK

If verification succeeds copy certificates to all nodes in the cluster.
Set mysql as owner of the files.

# Copy
scp -r /etc/mysql/ssl node1:/etc/mysql
scp -r /etc/mysql/ssl node2:/etc/mysql
scp -r /etc/mysql/ssl node3:/etc/mysql

# Change owner
node1: chown -R mysql:mysql /etc/mysql/ssl
node2: chown -R mysql:mysql /etc/mysql/ssl
node3: chown -R mysql:mysql /etc/mysql/ssl


Secure database and client connections.

Add following lines in my.cnf configuration file.
# MySQL Server
[mysqld]
ssl-ca=/etc/mysql/ssl/ca-cert.pem
ssl-cert=/etc/mysql/ssl/server-cert.pem
ssl-key=/etc/mysql/ssl/server-key.pem

# MySQL Client
[client]
ssl-ca=/etc/mysql/ssl/ca-cert.pem
ssl-cert=/etc/mysql/ssl/client-cert.pem
ssl-key=/etc/mysql/ssl/client-key.pem


Secure replication traffic.

Define paths to the key, certificate and certificate authority files. Galera Cluster will use this files for encrypting and decrypting replication traffic.

wsrep_provider_options="socket.ssl_key=/etc/mysql/ssl/server-key.pem;socket.ssl_cert=/etc/mysql/ssl/server-cert.pem;socket.ssl_ca=/etc/mysql/ssl/ca-cert.pem"


Enable SSL for mysqldump and Xtrabackup.

Create user which requires SSL for connection.

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE USER 'sstssl'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'sstssl';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT PROCESS, RELOAD, LOCK TABLES, REPLICATION CLIENT ON *.* TO 'sstssl'@'localhost' REQUIRE ssl;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

I will use this user for replication.
Change wsrep_sst_auth in my.cnf configuration file.

wsrep_sst_auth="sstssl:sstssl"


Now we must recreate whole cluster.
If I restart only one node, while others are running, node won't join to existing cluster.
You can notice this errors in mysql error log.

171017  3:20:29 [ERROR] WSREP: handshake with remote endpoint ssl://192.168.56.22:4567 failed: asio.ssl:336031996: 'unknown protocol' ( 336031996: 'error:140770FC:SSL routines:SSL23_GET_SERVER_HELLO:unknown protocol')
171017  3:20:29 [ERROR] WSREP: handshake with remote endpoint ssl://192.168.56.23:4567 failed: asio.ssl:336031996: 'unknown protocol' ( 336031996: 'error:140770FC:SSL routines:SSL23_GET_SERVER_HELLO:unknown protocol')
Shutdown the cluster and bootstrap it.


Check.
MariaDB [(none)]> status
--------------
mysql  Ver 15.1 Distrib 10.0.29-MariaDB, for debian-linux-gnu (x86_64) using readline 5.2

Connection id:          87
Current database:
Current user:           marko@localhost
SSL:                    Cipher in use is DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA  ###==> SSL is used
Current pager:          stdout
Using outfile:          ''
Using delimiter:        ;
Server:                 MariaDB
Server version:         10.0.17-MariaDB-1~trusty-wsrep-log mariadb.org binary distribution, wsrep_25.10.r4144
Protocol version:       10
Connection:             Localhost via UNIX socket
Server characterset:    utf8
Db     characterset:    utf8
Client characterset:    utf8
Conn.  characterset:    utf8
UNIX socket:            /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
Uptime:                 1 min 4 sec

Threads: 52  Questions: 676  Slow queries: 16  Opens: 167  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 31  Queries per second avg: 10.562
--------------


MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'have_ssl';
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| have_ssl      | YES   |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)



REFERENCES
6.4.3.2 Creating SSL Certificates and Keys Using openssl
MySQL : Configure SSL Connections


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